The geomorphological and environmental context of the Grd-i Tle archaeological site

István Viczián

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Geographical Institute, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Budapest.


Cite as: Viczián, I. 2020: The geomorphological and environmental context of the Grd-i Tle archaeological site. Hungarian Assyriological Review 1: 137‒145


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The geology, geomorphology and hydrography of the area around Grd-i Tle played an important role in the choice of location and the subsequent development of the settlement. The exceptionally abundant Saruchawa Spring as well as the fertile plains and gentle slopes around it made the settlement an important one on the Rania Plain. Grd-i Tle is located on the alluvial plain of the Qashan and Saruchawa Streams, at the foot of the Makook Ridge where several alluvial fans cover the plain at the mountain front. The fertile toe area of the fans and the alluvial plains have long been irrigated by the water of the Saruchawa Spring through a system of canals. The geomorphological position of the spring allows the irrigation of large areas around the tell. The raw materials used in the construction of the 28-metre-high tell with a volume of 1,716,496 m3 were available from nearby sources in considerable quantities. The building material for mud bricks came from the streams’ floodplain near the tell. The morphological and lithological examination of the stones from the site and its broader area indicates that the stones for construction were collected from the coarse sediment of the upper part of the alluvial fan nearby Grd-i Tle.

Grd-i Tle, tell, Rania Plain, Zagros, Makook, geomorphology, archaeology, environment

Copyright and acknowledgements

Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data availability. The author confirms that the data supporting the findings of this study are available within the article.
Disclosure statement. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author.
Funding statement. The author received no financial support for the research and the publication of this article.


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